2011-07-12 魚翅

肯定台灣漁業署制訂捕鯊需「全魚上岸」政策,禁止「割鰭棄身」 為全球海洋保育邁出重要一步

台灣動物社會研究會(EAST) 、國際人道對待動物協會 (Humane Society International) 聯合聲明

 

台灣動物社會研究會(EAST)與國際人道對待動物協會(HSI)今(11)日發表聯合聲明,肯定台灣漁業署宣佈將於明(2012)年起實施捕鯊必需「全魚上岸」政策,並於今年展開宣導。根據美國保育組織(PEW)今年初的研究報告台灣是全球排名第四的捕鯊大國,此一政策對於全球海洋保育是極為重要的一步。

根據漁業統計,台灣鯊魚捕獲量將近85%來自遠洋漁業,其中20%漁獲卸貨港口不在台灣,因此除法規修訂的配合外,未來如何落實執法將是很大考驗。兩組織呼籲漁業署增加遠洋漁船觀察員駐船比例,並考慮於他國漁港派駐檢查員,協助監督、管理。

動物社會研究會主任陳玉敏表示,台灣現行漁業相關法規僅規定漁船進港卸貨時,鯊魚魚鰭與魚體重量比例不得超過5%,但此原則多年來因「執法不易」、「漏洞太大」備受質疑。

近數十年來,由於漁業捕撈技術發展,加上亞洲對魚翅菜餚的需求扶搖直上,導致全球鯊魚數量驟減,許多鯊魚種類更達到瀕危地步,引起世界各國保育組織,以及包括聯合國在內的跨國政府組織高度關心。鯊魚在世界上已經存活了近四億年,比絕種的恐龍更早在地球上出現;鯊魚在地球的演化,尤其是海洋生態的演進與平衡,扮演著極重要的角色。

台灣同時也是全球主要魚翅消費與進出口國,掌握著鯊魚物種存危的關鍵;台灣的鯊魚保護政策如能加強、改善,甚至與歐美等國政策並駕齊驅,可為亞洲保育的前鋒,更有助於提昇台灣在海洋保育上的國際形象。

國際保育專家們認為,只取魚鰭,丟棄魚身」(finning),是導致鯊魚數量急遽下降的主因之一。目前許多國家以及國際漁業組織,都已訂定明確禁止finning的政策,但大多數的禁令都是以所謂的「魚鰭與魚身重量比例不超過百分之五」原則規範。不過,根據國際保育聯盟(International Union for Conservation of Nature, IUCN)鯊魚研究小組表示,從魚翅交易數量與鯊魚捕獲數量相比,兩者之間存有極大落差,也就表示finning的行為仍大幅存在。由於這個「百分之五比例」的禁令漏洞百出,導致鯊魚保護成效不彰。近幾年來,國際間開始宣導揚棄百分比的禁令,而改採「全魚上岸」(fins-naturally-attached)的政策。

國際人道對待動物協會(HSI)野生動物部門主任何燕青表示:「全魚上岸」是許多保育專家以及國際組織公認制止活割魚鰭最有效的保育措施。美國奧巴馬總統於2011年初簽署鯊魚保育法案(Shark Conservation Act),規定所有在美國聯邦水域裡的船隻捕獲的鯊魚都必須魚鰭魚體連身「全魚上岸」;中美洲數個國家,例如哥斯大黎加、巴拿馬、哥倫比亞等國(註一)也開始採取「全魚上岸」政策。歐盟議會在今年也開始討論是否改變既有的「百分比」規定,改採「全魚上岸」政策。HSI更曾與哥斯大黎加政府合作,在數個大型的國際漁業組織舉辦研討會(註二),與各國漁政官員分享哥國漁船如何完整保留冷凍魚身的技術,受到許多支持。2012年將在更多區域漁業組織以及重點國家舉辦類似的研討會。HSI與EAST非常願意協助台灣漁業署在技術層面提供漁民相關知識及訓練。

除了推動鯊魚漁獲「全魚上岸」政策外,近年來一些國家更開始推動「國家鯊魚保育區」。例如,台灣的邦交國帛琉、宏都拉斯,及馬爾地夫等,已開始將其國家週遭水域劃為鯊魚保育區,全面禁止鯊魚捕撈。

註一:http://www.hsi.org/assets/pdfs/shark_finning_regs_2011.pdf

註二:http://www.fao.org/cofi/25544-02f12b15bf46fbc875bb2eee9bf885b5c.pdf

新聞聯絡人:

台灣動物社會研究會主任 陳玉敏 02-22398105 / 0910-150-908
國際人道對待動物協會野生動物部門主任 何燕青 t 301.258.1407 /m 301.318.2423

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TAIWAN’S IMPROVED SHARK PROTECTION POLICY SETS TAIWAN AS A PIONEER IN OCEAN CONSERVATION IN ASIA

(Taipei, Taiwan) – July 12, 2011 --The Environment & Animal Society of Taiwan (EAST) and Humane Society International (HSI) commend the Taiwanese fisheries agency’s announcement to strengthen its shark management measure and implement “fins-naturally-attached” policy beginning next year. This is a remarkable decision, given the fact that Taiwan is the world’s No. 4 shark catching countries, according to a recent Pew report.

“The new fins-attached regulation will do away with the loophole-filled fin-to-carcass ratio regulation. It sets Taiwan apart from the rest of its Asian counterparts and puts Taiwan on a par with the United States and other countries that are leaders in shark and ocean protection. With Taiwan being one of the top shark catching and fin trading countries in the world, Taiwan’s shark management policy would impact a great number of shark populations and species,” said EAST’s director Yu-Min Chen.

“Fins-naturally-attached policy is what many conservationists and experts have concluded as the best way to prevent shark finning. We are glad to see Taiwan follow in the footsteps of the United States and a growing number of Latin American countries, such as Costa Rica, Panama and Colombia, to implement this measure,” said wildlife campaigns manager for HSI, Iris Ho.

“With the support of Humane Society International and Pew, the Cost Rican government held several workshops, including the one at the 29th meeting of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Committee on Fisheries in Rome earlier this year, to promote fins-attached policy. EAST and HSI extend their support to help the Taiwanese government provide training workshops and materials in order for the Taiwanese fishermen to fully understand and comply with this new regulation.”

Several countries have taken a step further and have created “shark sanctuaries” in their waters. They include Taiwan’s diplomatic allies, Palau and Honduras, and The Maldives.

The two organizations also call for the government to add more observers on Taiwan’s pelagic fishing vessels and send inspectors to foreign ports that are usual destinations for Taiwanese fishing vessels.

EAST aims to address the roots of problems, with ongoing research to uncover animal cruelties and injustices that society would otherwise not be aware of. We believe that effective change needs to happen at a legislative, public administration and judicial level as well as through awareness-raising and institutional education. We also believe that human welfare is closely linked to animal and environmental protection, hence also work against the degradation of the environment and actively promote freedom of government information, and democratic participation in public policy-making in Taiwan. Website : www.east.org.tw

Humane Society International and its partner organizations together constitute one of the world's largest animal protection organizations — backed by 11 million people. For nearly 20 years, HSI has been fighting for the protection of all animals through advocacy, education, and hands-on programs. Celebrating animals and confronting cruelty worldwide — On the Web at hsi.org.

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